Conjectures on the dubious biblical accounts
The Torah describes the creation of the world in six days. There is also
a scientific explanation. According to the theory of relativity, time slows down
in fast-moving objects, for example, space ships. The Holy Spirit, being
formless, resembles a gravitational or magnetic field which has no form or size.
Fields move in space with a speed approaching the speed of light in a vacuum.
Thus, if the Spirit is a field, time almost stops for him. As he hovered over
the abyss, six days would equal billions of human years, the age scientists
assign to the universe.
Torah does not say that the world was created 6,000 years ago. Rather,
there are several accounts differentiated in time.
Gen1:1: In the beginning, God created the heaven and the earth; implied,
there already were others. Thus, the Universe already existed for indeterminate
time and Gen1:1 relates the Creation of Earth.
Gen1:2: for indefinite time afterwards, the earth was sort of unfinished.
That conforms to the geological fact of the hot, melted planet.
Gen1:3: at some later point, the planet saw the first light. Science
confirms that the young planet was covered in a thick non-transparent cloud of
dust and volcanic matter. When the dust settled, the planet was ready to develop
life forms. Here comes the allegorical six-day Creation.
Gen1:27: Creation of humans.
Gen2:7: After a major drought, God started a new civilization in Eden. By
the time of Adam, humans already densely settled the Earth (in Gen4:14, Cain
laments that any stranger could kill him). In biblical chronology, that happened
very approximately about 4,000 B.C.E. Indeed, anthropologists note inexplicable
surge of civilization around that time. 6,000 years date the Edenic civilization
– not the Creation. Torah gives no indication when Universe, Earth, or humans
Enoch, Adam's grandson, was closer to modern humans. Before Enoch's
generation, people had hairy faces, like apes (Bereshit rabbah 23:9).
Gen6:2: humans interbred with "sons of God," possibly
descendants of Cain who was "received from God" (Gen4:1)
Gen6:7: the previous race is destroyed in flood. The destruction is not
total: much later, giant Goliath was one of the last "fallen ones."
The race of giants recalls megalithic culture.
Gen11:1 Humans originally had a common language. That conforms to
Indo-European or Nostratic language theory.
The earth, says Genesis1:2, was formless and void. The earth, an object,
cannot be possibly void. Hebrew words tohu and bohu are translated thus only
tentatively, and assuming non-standard contraction. No less possible reading is,
“And the earth was [there], you will live also (and) in it.” This
translation makes sense of the text’ careful insistence on definite article
before earth. After hovering above the Earth, elokim designated it
as a new abode for someone.
Could Noah’s Ark be not a vessel but a globetrotting laboratory bin of
DNA samples of the living beings of those times, which survived the flood and
The Tower of Babel account relates of a civilization sufficiently advanced
to reach the sky, suffered cataclysmic destruction. Its people left the place
and went to distant communities. Whether or not the mention of them reaching the
sky alludes to air transportation, they traveled fast. They settled in other
communities, and created different languages.
Tanakh relates of the giant Nephilim people. Size of animals increased,
climaxing in dinosaurs and the like. After catastrophic extinction of large
species, animals became smaller. The same process could take places for humans.
Who are the Hebrews? Hebrew language is unrelated to the Sumerian, a
probable language of Abraham. Virtually no traces of Hebrew presence are found
in pre-Exodus Egypt. Ancient historians, however, relate the Hebrews to
Carthaginians. Their languages are very similar, and customs and religious
practices have much in common. Torah refers to scaleless fish, and the only such
fish is sea mammals – unknown to landlocked Hebrews, but well known to
Carthaginians. Religiously tolerant Romans had little reason to dislike the Jews
as they in fact did; Romans had a good reason to dislike Carthaginians. Carthage
was not far from Egypt, and Hebrew folklore could transform the expulsion by
Romans into Exodus. The expulsion would explain the often-expressed desire of
Hebrews to turn back – an inexplicable fact if they escaped from harsh,
murderous slavery. Carthaginians were experienced warriors and, unlike pastoral
Hebrews, could indeed score many victories in Sinai. The name Hebrews
might be related to the river Ebro in Spain that Hannibal crossed to invade
Italy. The inflated accounts of the Judean War and the subsequent revolt mirror
the memories of the Punic wars.
The pyramid architect's name Hymanu recalls Hyman, King of Tyre, architect
of the First Temple. The site of Jerusalem does not allow for the Temple size
mentioned in the Bible. Could the Temple be the Egyptian pyramid? Jewish priests
explained absence of the First Temple with the story of its destruction.
Many ridicule the miracle of the Red Sea parting for the Israelites
during the Exodus. The Red Sea is yam suf
in Hebrew, meaning sea of reeds or swamp
into which Red Sea turned before the Aswan Dam was built. Hebrews crossed a gulf
north of the Red Sea. A strong north (from front, mistranslated as
eastern) wind blowing for a long time could make the water shallow, a
condition of which the Israelites took advantage by wading the swamp. While the
Jews crossed on foot, the Egyptian heavy cavalry drowned in the marsh. That is
why the Torah says only the chariots drowned, not the whole Egyptian army.
Significantly, the wheels of the chariots first sank in mud.[BC1] A
miracle does not necessarily violate the laws of nature.
Hebrew laws form a wonderful ethical system. They were given on Sinai in the
environment as if intended to impress the Israelites. In Ex18:20, almost-revered
Jethro tells his son-in-law Moses to stop judging the people himself, and to
record the laws so that other judges may apply them. Apparently, Moses already
knew and applied the laws which the Israelites learned at Sinai. The Mosaic laws
may be just that – the laws Moses learned in Egypt, perhaps from an ancient
tradition, and recorded and gave to Israelites.
Priestly texts are oddly critical of the Jews: they rebel, whine, practice
strange religions, and pervert the law. They are not the first-born. Even the
name, Israel, “he will fight God,” is depreciative. Abraham is made to laugh
at God’s promise of son, even though the promise was not unreasonable: Abraham
fathered Ishmael at 86. Moses continuously shrieks from his duties, and Hebrews
in Sinai are discontent with God. The names of Levites are Egyptian, and Levites
received the ultimate sinecure of the Temple service. The Pharaoh of Exodus is
essentially a good fellow, but God hardened his heart. The priests were
pro-Egyptian, and contempt of the Israelite crowd newly converted to the